How to Configure Additional VM Metrics in vCloud Director

vCloud Director already for some time (since version 5.6) provides to tenants basic set of VM metrics. Until vCloud Director 9.0 they had to be retrieved with vCloud API, however now the users can easily access the metrics from the new HTML5 UI.

vCloud Director 9.0 besides adding the metric UI also simplifies the metric database backend configuration (no KairosDB needed anymore) and also provides the option to service provider to configure additional VM metrics.

Here follows the step by step description of the last point. I assume that Cassandra cluster – the VM metric database is already set up.

  • First you need to find the metric names VC Performance Manager uses. This PowerCLI script exports all VM metric names.
  • Now we will create text file (e.g. metrics.groovy) with the new metrics.

configuration {

The metrics in the file must not overlap with the already existing default metrics. Additional options about frequency, interval averages, etc. can be provided as well. See docs for the details.

  • On a vCloud Director cell with the cell-management-tool we will import the new metrics:
    $VCLOUD_HOME/bin/cell-management-tool configure-metrics –metrics-config /tmp/metrics.groovy 
  • Still on the cell we need to update Cassandra schema, again with the cell-management-tool (provide the correct nodes addresses, DB authentication details, port and metrics time to live in days):
    $VCLOUD_HOME/bin/cell-management-tool cassandra –configure –cluster-nodes –username cassandra –password cassandra –port 9042 –ttl 31 –update-schema
  • Restart all cells

That is all. After while we can monitor the new metrics with the UI or API.

The metric definition is stored in vCloud Director table metric_configuration.


vCloud Availability: Replication of Powered-off VM

Just a short post about a feature I recently learned.

In vSphere Replication when you are configuring replication of powered-off VM you will get the following message:

The virtual machine is not powered on. Replication will start when the virtual machine is powered on.

The replication is actually configured and its placeholder VM is created in the recovery location (cloud) but the VM will stay in Not Active state.

Why is this? Immediate start of replication locks VM disks which means such VM would not be able to power-on until the initial sync is finished. But what if you want to replicate powered-off VMs for example templates that are never meant to run?

You can in fact force start the replication by right clicking the VM and selecting Sync Now, which asks confirmation question if we really want to do so as the VM will not be able the be powered on until the operation completes.

Is there a use case for this? As I mentioned this could be used for catalog sync as replication is much faster and efficient that OVF export / import.

How To Disable Local System Administrator Accounts in vCloud Director

For some time there has been a hidden security feature in vCloud Director that allows disabling local system administrator accounts. During vCloud Director installation a default local system administrator account is created. The user credentials are stored encrypted in the vCloud Director database but there is no way to enforce complex password policies other than Account Lockout Policy.

It is possible to configure external identity sources such us generic LDAP for basic authentication and SAML2 IdP (such as vCenter SSO). The authentication and thus also the password policies are than managed externally. However, when you try to delete or disable all local system administrator accounts you will get the following error:

Cannot delete or deactivate the last system administrator.

This is a built in protection against completely locking yourself out when the external identity sources are not available.

Some customers can have the need to enforce strict security rules on all vCloud Director system administrator logins. There is a non-documented way to disable all local system administrator accounts with a single command. The system administrator can run the following cell-management-tool  command to enable config property local.sysadmin.disabled.

$VCLOUD_HOME/bin/cell-management-tool manage-config -n local.sysadmin.disabled -v true

Immediately after the property is enabled, authentication with local accounts will stop working. It means authentication for all local system administrator accounts that exist in vCloud Director (not just the default account created during installation) will be rejected. Organization local accounts will not be affected.

In case access to external IdPs is lost, the system admin can again disable the property to regain access to vCloud Director:

$VCLOUD_HOME/bin/cell-management-tool manage-config -n local.sysadmin.disabled -v false

vCloud Director 9: Customize Tenant UI

vCloud Director 9 introduces brand new HTML5 tenant user interface. It currently provides only limited set of operations:

  • simplified workflow to create VMs without the need to create vApps
  • view and modify (but not create) vApps
  • create and configure networks and networking services
  • configure multisite organization associations

The legacy (flex) UI is still available and the user can jump to it if needed which is useful especially for Org Administrators.

The new UI can be modified – in the initial release with the following elements:

  • Portal name
  • Portal color (in RGB HEX format e.g. #EE00EE)
  • Portal theme (default/dark)
  • Logo (png file of max size 512 KB)

This will expand in the future with tenant granularity, custom themes and custom links, but for now we have only these four elements.

The configuration must be done with new CloudAPI which is JSON based. At the time of writing its documentation has not been yet published.

  • Retrieve authentication token with vCloud API or UI
  • Use the following call to change logo:

PUT /cloudapi/branding/logo

Content-Type: image/png

x-vcloud-authorization: …

Body: <binary image file>

  • Use the following call to change other elements:

PUT /cloudapi/branding

Content-Type: application/json

x-vcloud-authorization: …

    “portalName”: “vCloud Director 9.0”,
    “portalColor”: “#EE00EE”,
    “selectedTheme”: {
        “themeType”: “BUILT_IN”,
        “name”: “Dark”    },
    “customLinks”: []

vCloud Director 9: SAML2 Federation for System Administrators

In the past in vCloud Director 8.20 (and older versions) system admins (the provider context) could use local, LDAP and vSphere SSO accounts. vCloud Director 9.0 now replaces vSphere SSO accounts with more generic SAML2 accounts which means you can have the same IdP mechanism in the tenant and system context.

This change however breaks the previous vSphere SSO federation which was as simple as entering the vSphere Lookup Service URL and enabling the vSphere Single Sign-On with a check box (which in vCloud Director 9.0 is no longer there).

Here is the procedure how to enable vSphere Single Sign-On in vCloud Director 9.0.

  1. Login to vCloud Director as system admin and from administration>System Settings/Federation download the metadata document (spring_saml_metadata.xml) from the link provided (../cloud/org/System/saml/metadata/alias/vcd). Make sure the certificate (below) is valid.
  2. Login to vSphere Web Client as SSO admin and go to Administration/Single Sign-On/Configuration/SAML Service Providers
  3. Import the metadata from step #1
  4. Download the vsphere.local.xml metadata from the link below.
  5. Go back to VCD, check use SAML Identity Provider and upload metadata from #4.

Note that Import Users/Group source now changes from vSphere SSO to SAML.

vCloud Director 8.20
vCloud Director 9.0