VXLAN on Routed Transport Network

One of the major benefits of VXLAN technology is that it allows creating virtual Layer 2 segments over Layer 3 routed networks. VTEPs (VXLAN Tunnel End Points) encapsulate and decapsulate ethernet frames of VMs on virtual networks and send them as UDP packets. However there still must be a mechanism that provides ability for sending VTEPs to find the receiving VTEPs for broadcast, unknown unicast and multicast (BUM) traffic.

In NSX we can use multicast, hybrid and unicast modes. Hybrid and unicast modes leverage controller cluster that has knowledge of the entire VTEP topology. However in vCloud Network and Security (vCNS) we can use only multicast mode.

While setting up a multicast in a flat layer 2 network is very easy and only requires enabling IGMP snooping and querrier on the physical switch infrastructure, routed multicast is much harder. That is why hybrid and unicast modes that NSX provides are so useful. In unicast mode all BUM traffic is replicated by VTEPs. In hybrid mode, multicast is used in each L2 segment of the transport network while unicast is used to send for replication of the traffic to the other segments.

In my recent VXLAN deployment we however had to stick to pure multicast mode as we used vCNS. To route multicast traffic the physical router was enabled to use PIM-SM (Protocol Independent Multicast in Sparse Mode) with rendezvous point. However it turned out that setting up the VTEPs is not straightforward and not very well documented with some misinformation in blog post I found on the web.

Each VTEP needs to have an IP address assigned. In vCNS the assignment happens over DHCP protocol only,

Auto-assigned VTEP IP address

NSX provides next to DHCP also ability to use network pools. As we were using vCNS and had no DHCP servers in the VXLAN transport network we had to go into each host and manually assign the VTEP vmkernel port IP address through vSphere client. Unfortunately this is not enough for routed communication on the transport network. Default gateway in the VXLAN network stack must be defined.

Missing gateway

The default gateway must be added through ESXi CLI interface as can be seen in above screenshot it is not configurable via GUI. Originally we created a static route to the other segment, but that is not enough (actually not needed at all) and instead the default gateway must be defined with the following command.

esxcli network ip route ipv4  add -n default -g 1.1.1.1 -N vxlan

where 1.1.1.1 is the gateway IP address and vxlan is the networking stack.

The verification that gateway is set properly can be done with net-vdl2 -l command.

net-vdl2

 

How To Change VXLAN VTEP MTU Size and Teaming Policy

One of my customers has configured VXLAN in vCloud Director environment and then created multiple Provider and Org VDCs and deployed virtual networks. Then we found out that MTU and teaming policy configuration was set up incorrectly. Redeployment of the whole environment would take too much time, fortunately there is a way to do this without rip and replace approach.

First little bit of background. VXLAN VTEPs are configured in vShield Manager or in NSX Manager (via vSphere Web Client plugin) on cluster/distributed switch level. vShield/NSX Manager creates one distributed switch port group with given parameters (VLAN, teaming policy) and then for each host added to the cluster creates VTEP vmknic (with configured MTU size and DHCP/IP Pool addressing scheme). This means that teaming policy can be easily changed directly at vSphere level by direct edit of the distributed switch port group and MTU size can be changed on each host VTEP vmknic. However every new host deployed into the VXLAN prepared cluster would still use the wrong MTU size set in vShield/NSX Manager. Note that as there can be only one VTEP port group per distributed switch, clusters sharing the same vSwitch need to have identical VTEP teaming policy and VLAN ID.

The actual vCNS/NSX Manager VTEP configuration can be changed via following REST API call:

PUT https://<vCNS/NSX Manager FQDN>/api/api/2.0/vdn/switches/<switch ID>

with the Body containing the new configuration.

Example using Firefox RESTClient plugin:

  1. Install Firefox RESTClient plugin.
  2. Make sure vCNS/NSX Manager certificate is trusted by Firefox.
  3. In Firefox toolbar click on RESTClient icon.
  4. Create authentication header: Authentication > Basic Authentication > enter vCNS/NSX Manager credentials
  5. Select GET method and in the URL enter https://<vCNS/NSX Manager FQDN>/api/2.0/vdn/switches
    VDS Contexts
  6. This will retrieve all vswitch contexts in vCNS/NSX domain. Find ID of the one you want to change and use it in the following GET call
  7. Select GET method and in the URL enter https://<vCNS/NSX Manager FQDN>/api/api/2.0/vdn/switches/<switch-ID>
    VDS Context
  8. Now copy the Response Body and paste it into the Request Body box. In the XML edit the parameters you want to change. In my case I have changed:
    <mtu>9000</mtu> to <mtu>1600</mtu> and
    <teaming>ETHER_CHANNEL</teaming> to <teaming>FAILOVER_ORDER</teaming>
  9. Change the metod to PUT and add a new header: Content-Type: application/xml.
    PUT Request
  10. Send the request. If everything went successfully we should get Status Code: 200 OK response.
    OK Response

Now we need in vSphere Client change MTU size of all existing hosts to the new value and also change the teaming policy on VTEP portgroup (in my case from Route based on IP hash to Use explicit failover order).

vCloud Network and Security (vShield Manager) supports following teaming policies:

  • FAILOVER_ORDER
  • ETHER_CHANNEL
  • LACP_ACTIVE
  • LACP_PASSIVE
  • LACP_V2

NSX adds following two teaming policies for multiple VTEP vmknics:

  • LOADBALANCE_SRCID
  • LOADBALANCE_SRCMAC

Update 9/22/2014

Existing VXLAN VNI portgroups (virtual wires) will use original teaming policy, therefore they need to be changed to match the new one as well.

When using FAILOVER_ORDER teaming policy there must be also specification of the uplinks in the XML. The uplinks should use the names as defined at the distributed switch level.

<teaming>FAILOVER_ORDER</teaming>
<uplinkPortName>Uplink 2</uplinkPortName>
<uplinkPortName>Uplink 1</uplinkPortName>

Update 4/1/2015

As mentioned in the comments below vCNS and NSX differ slightly in the API call. For NSX the correct call is:

PUT https://nsx01.fojta.com/api/2.0/switches

(without the switch-id at the end).